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Land and water management in upstream-downstream areas in Koshi Basin, Nepal


SG 1: Reducing Climate and Environmental Risks & Action Area A: Managing Cryosphere and Water Risk


Koshi River Basin (Nepal)

Date & Time

26 February 2023 to 03 March 2023

About the fieldwork

We are hosting a group of 20 representatives from government line agencies, non-government organisations, and local partners who are directly involved in implementing disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities.  A week-long fieldwork will take the group along the Koshi River from Barahbise and Melamchi in the north to the Koshi Barrage between Sunsari and Saptari districts in the south.

The fieldwork will showcase a range of issues and opportunities regarding disaster risk reduction in the Koshi River covering the study sites and the actions undertaken to address them. The trip will look at land and water management in upstream-downstream areas and how increasing limitations in water availability can be balanced through wise use and management of water.

The learning visit is being organised in collaboration with local partners Community Development and Advocacy Forum Nepal (CDAFN) in Mahottari, Sabal Nepal in Saptari, and Human Rights, Social Awareness and Development Centre (HUSADEC) in Dhankuta.



  • Increase awareness on multi-hazard disaster issues, challenges, and adaptation efforts linking upstream and downstream communities
  • Integrate GEDSI and preparedness actions in local DRR policies and annual plans



  • Increased understanding of stakeholders and partners on the impacts of the multi-hazard risks in the local context and its linkage with upstream and downstream communities
  • Increased understanding of GEDSI issues and the disproportionate impacts of multi-hazards on the lives and livelihoods of vulnerable people
  • Relevant government and non-government stakeholders incorporate GEDSI-integrated multi-hazard risks management approaches in their plans


Expected participants

  • Representatives of local government line agencies involved with the downstream vulnerable communities who are implementing DRR plans and policies at the local level
  • Representatives from non-government organisations and local partners working with communities and local government for disaster risk reduction and management



Time Location and activity Facilitator
16:00 Participants arrive at Aagantuk Resort, Dhulikhel
17:00–17:30 Welcome, objective, introduction session Vijay Khadgi, Flood Early Warning and Energy Analyst, ICIMOD

Shailendra Shakya, Consultant, Integrated Flood Risk Management, ICIMOD

17:30–18:30 Interaction on GEDSI Aditya Bastola, Gender Specialist, ICIMOD
20:00 Dinner at Aagantuk Resort

Time Location and activity Issues Facilitator
8:00 Depart from Aagantuk Resort
10:30–11:30 Hydro–met station at Bahrabise



Disasters like floods and the importance of EWS

*ICIMOD upgraded the hydrological station in collaboration with DHM.

Pradeep Dangol, Senior Research Associate, ICIMOD


12:00–13:00 Lunch at Mata Chandeswori Hotel, Bahrabise
13:15–13:45 Jure Landslide Vulnerabilities and damages to hydropower due to flood and linkages with other cascading hazards Vijay Khadgi, ICIMOD
13:50–14:10 SunKoshi Hydropower Plant (View in passing)
14:40–15:10 Balephi confluence Balephi confluence (Potential impact of GLOF) Shailendra Shakya, ICIMOD
16:15–16:45 Tea break and discussion at Panchkhal


Issues and solutions to too much too little water (Effects of climate change and adaptation to too little water, different perspective, vegetable basket, springs loss and migration) Vijay Khadgi, ICIMOD


18:00 Arrive at Aagantuk Resort
19:00 Dinner and interaction Sudan Maharjan, Remote Sensing Analyst, ICIMOD

Time Location/activity Issues Facilitator
8:00 Depart from Aagantuk Resort
10:30–12:00 Melamchi Multi-hazards like flood and flash floods and its impact on land-use, vulnerable areas, communities, GEDSI and infrastructure such as the Melamchi water diversion Sudan Maharjan, ICIMOD
12:00–13:00 Lunch at Hotel Melamchi River Side Inn, Melamchi
16:00 Arrive at Kwality Beach Resort, Mulkot
19:00 Dinner and Interaction Pradeep Dangol, ICIMOD

Time Location/Activity Issues Facilitator
8:00 Depart from Kwality Beach Resort
11:00–12:30 Showcasing adaptation solutions at Bahunmara, Rajabas (Seepage water raising technology, rainwater harvesting pond, bioengineering measures) Impacts of floods, soil erosion, degraded lands, and scope of inclusion of nature-based solutions into integrated flood risk management Community Development and Advocacy Forum Nepal (CDAFN), Mahottari, Nepal


13:00 – 14:00 Lunch at Gautam Hotel, Bardibas
14:15 – 14:45 Ratu River:

CBFEWS station at Ratu-river (Interaction with CBFEWS Caretaker of Ratu River)

Impacts of floods and community responses Shailendra Shakya/Pradeep Dangol, ICIMOD
16:00 – 17:00 Bhangha and Balwa, Mohattari: Interaction with community members Flood affecting downstream communities CDAFN and CBFEWS Team
18:30 Arrive at Gautam Hotel
19:00 Dinner and Interaction CDAFN

Time Location/Activity Facilitator
9:15–9:25 Expectation of the participants Aditya Bastola, ICIMOD
9:25–9:30 Objectives of the GEDSI Session
Part 1: Understanding key gender concepts and the impacts of climate change
9:30–10:15 Understanding gender and identity

(gender/sex, social exclusion/inclusion, disability, equality and equity, identity)

Games/presentation/quiz/videoGender concepts

Aditya Bastola, ICIMOD
10:15–10:35 Presentation/video on the interlinkages – GEDSI and water resource management
10:35–10:50 Group discussion: A world without girl is as impossible as a world without water (Participatory and video presentation)
10:50–11:20 GEDSI dimension of climate change impacts Reflection from the field

Group work (3 groups)

11:20 – 11:35 Tea break
Part 2: How do we enact gender mainstreaming
11:35–12:05 Group presentations – Reporting back on the group work Aditya Bastola, ICIMOD
12:05–12:15 Video: Gender-based analysis
12:15–12:45 Presentation on gender mainstreaming
12:45–13:45 Lunch Break
Part: 3 Gender analysis tools and technique
13:45–14:15 Presentation on the gender analysis tools and techniques Aditya Bastola, ICIMOD
14:15–15:00 Group work

Revisit individual projects from a GEDSI mainstreaming perspective

Develop gender–responsive action and indicators

15:00–15:15 Feedback and evaluation
15:15–15:30 Tea break
15:30–17:00 Closing session

  • Guest
  • Sabal Nepal
Vijay Khadgi, ICIMOD
19:00 Dinner and interaction Aditya Bastola, ICIMOD

Time Location/Activity Issues Facilitator
8:00 Depart from Gautam Hotel
11:00–11:30 Khando River: CBFEWS Station at Khando River Flood impacts and sustainability model of CBFEWS at Khando River Sabal Nepal and Rajesh Jha, Tilathi Koiladi Rural Municipality
12:00–12:30 3D model demonstration of Khando River Flood impacts Sabal Nepal and Rajesh Jha
12:30–13:30 Lunch at Elephant Garden Hotel Resort, Kanchanrup
14:00 – 14:30 Koshi Barrage: Riverbank farming (Discussion on Koshi flood, embankment damaged and riverbed farming) Transboundary aspects of structural interventions, impacts of the Koshi Flood, embankment damages and opportunities of riverbed farming Vijay Khadgi, ICIMOD


15:00 Participants depart