Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative (KLCDI)

The Kangchenjunga landscape (KL), stretching along the south side of Mount Kangchenjunga in Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the world’s most critical centres of biodiversity. Already established protected areas, which comprise 41.8 per cent of the landscape, contain vegetation types ranging from tropical to alpine and are a home to more than 100 mammal species, 550 birds, and 600 butterflies. The landscape serves as a habitat for many umbrella and charismatic species including snow leopard, red panda, takin, blue sheep, serow, Himalayan musk deer, Himalayan thar, tiger, and Asian elephant. This important transboundary area also provides valuable ecosystem services that support the wellbeing and livelihoods of people living in the landscape, as well as millions living downstream.
Considering the urgent need to protect this globally important landscape, the Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative (KLCDI) was started by ICIMOD in 2002 to encourage cooperation among the governments of Bhutan, India, and Nepal in the sustainable management of the KL. This transboundary conservation initiative follows the ecosystem management approach advocated and promoted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes the importance of establishing habitat linkages among the protected areas, managing the ecosystems in entirety, and supporting the livelihoods of communities living therein. 


  • Prepare a feasibility assessment report, conservation strategy, and comprehensive environmental monitoring plan with a focus on long-term monitoring of conservation and development activities
  • Prepare a Regional Cooperation Framework (RCF) for conservation and management of rich biological diversity, vibrant cultural heritage, and vital ecosystem services through transboundary ecosystem management and participatory approaches that foster human wellbeing
  • Enhance cooperation among participating countries with a common goal of conservation and sustainable development within the landscape



Protected Area , Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) , Kangchenjunga Landscape , India , Species , Plants , Seed Plants , Angiosperms , Gymnopserms , HKH-bif , Biodiversity

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Corridors , Neora Valley National Park , Toorsa Strict Nature Reserve , Kangchnejunga Landscape , India , Bhutan , species , plants , seed plants , angiosperms , gymnosperms , HKH-bif , Biodiversity


KL Map


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