Back to events

Strengthening transboundary cooperation to manage human–wildlife conflict in the Kangchenjunga Landscape

Organizer: Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative


Concept note

Strengthening transboundary cooperation

About the consultation meeting

Human–wildlife conflict (HWC), an issue common to all Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) range countries, is emerging as a global challenge for conservation. It is also a transboundary issue where greater regional cooperation is needed for both mitigation actions and for enhancing wildlife habitats and corridors. In 2018, within the Regional Cooperation Framework (RCF), we facilitated the Siliguri Dialogue which recommended several actions. An HWC Regional Task Force is now in place and some actions related to literature review, hotspot mapping, data updates, and capacity development are in progress.

The objectives of this consultation are to:

  • Provide updates on the progress of national and regional actions for adaptation to and mitigation of HWC in the Kangchenjunga Landscape (KL)
  • Review and endorse the ToR for the HWC Regional Task Force
  • Agree on key regional HWC actions with timeline
  • Share the process of and lessons in addressing HWC issues with other landscape initiatives of HKH


The Kangchenjunga Landscape

The KL covers an area of 25,080 km2 and spreads across part of eastern Nepal (21%), Sikkim and West Bengal of India (56%), and the western and south-western parts of Bhutan (23%). The three countries endorsed the Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Strategy and RCF in 2017. The landscape sustains many vital Himalayan rivers and crucial watersheds and is home to an estimated 7.2 million people. It also harbours a significant portion of the world’s biodiversity, with over 5,198 species of plants, 173 mammal species, 618 bird species, and 600 butterfly species, including several rare, endemic and threatened species. There are 19 protected areas that cover 30% of the landscape.

HWC, including cross-border conflicts, is a major issue that threatens conservation efforts, wildlife populations and habitats, and the lives and livelihoods of communities living within and around protected areas.


Human–wildlife conflict in the landscape

As wildlife habitats come under pressure from encroachment, infrastructure development, and resource extraction there has been an increase in human–wildlife interactions and conflict. The landscape lost an estimated 1,118 sq. km of forest area from 2000 to 2010.

Major HWC incidents occur around the edges of isolated protected areas, with impacts on both local communities and wildlife. As of 2021, an average of 115 people are killed or severely injured annually in Nepal by large mammals such as elephant, tiger, leopard, and bear. In 2018, Bhutan experienced an annual crop losses of up to 25% of total household income due to crop raiding by wildlife and about 10%–19% through livestock depredation. The economic losses of rural communities owing to HWC are estimated at USD 2,32,096 in 2018 and USD 199,080 in 2021 for Bhutan and Nepal, respectively.

HWC is also a threat to wildlife. About 54% of reported annual elephant deaths in the transboundary habitat of Nepal and India are a result of retaliatory killings due to gunshot, wounds, electrocution, and chemical poisoning.




 Time (NPT)



Session I: Highlights of HWC in KL


Opening session

Event rationale and objectives

Nakul Chettri, Regional Programme Manager,

Transboundary Landscapes, ICIMOD


Presentation on KL process, progress and highlights on HWC in KL

Tashi Dorji, Programme Coordinator, KLCDI, ICIMOD, and Sunita Chaudhary, Ecosystem Services Specialist, ICIMOD





HWC country update – Bhutan

Namgay Wangchuk, Senior Forest Officer,

Nature Conservation Division, Department of Forest

and Park Services


HWC country update – India

Dechen Lachungpa, DFO, Department of Forest and Environment, Sikkim

North Bengal representative (TBC)


HWC country update – Nepal

Dil Bahadur Purja Pun, Planning Officer, Under Secretary, Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation




Session II: Draft HWC policy brief and ToR for Regional Task Force


Presentation on draft HWC policy brief

Kesang Wangchuk, Biodiversity Specialist, ICIMOD


Presentation on the draft ToR

Tashi Dorji, Programme Coordinator, KLCDI, ICIMOD




Session III: Way forward


Draft regional HWC action plan with timeline

Nakul Chettri, Regional Programme Manager,

Transboundary Landscapes, ICIMOD


Vote of thanks

Basant Pant, Programme Officer, KLCDI, ICIMOD


Sep 29 2022
29 Sep 2022 KSL
Kailash Confluence 2022: Rethinking transboundary tourism

Kailash Confluence (KaiCon) 2022 aims to bring together tourism stakeholders from India and Nepal to develop a roadmap for promoting ...