Economics of forest restoration

Economics of forest restoration


The IPCC’s 6th Assessment Report unequivocally states that anthropogenic activities have accelerated global warming at an unprecedented rate. Consequently, the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves, cyclones, intense precipitation, and droughts have been increasing, affecting the lives and livelihoods of people globally. Limiting human-induced global warming requires limiting cumulative emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Forest restoration is expected to help limit global warming. Evidence suggests that in lower- and middle-income countries, such restoration is biophysically feasible for up to 2 billion ha of forest area. But this is not without economic and institutional challenges.

This study intends to understand the economics of forest restoration as a carbon mitigation option and its distributional impacts on gender and marginalized groups in four South Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

Funding : International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada.
Duration: February 2022–January 2025


Research team

The project is led by Mani Nepal, Programme Coordinator, SANDEE, ICIMOD, as Project Leader (Principal Investigator). Two SANDEE advisors, Jeff Vincent, Professor at Duke University, and François Libois, Professor at the Paris School of Economics, are involved in the research.



Bangladesh: Research team lead by Raquibul Amin, Country Representative, Bangladesh Country Office, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Dhaka

Nepal: Naya S Paudel, Project Coordinator and Institutional/Policy Analyst, Forest Action, Kathmandu

Pakistan: Hina Aslam, Ecologist, Research Fellow, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad

Sri Lanka: Erandathie Pathiraja, Research Fellow, Institute of Policy Studies, Sri Lanka



Published papers

Title Journal
Opportunity Costs of Forest Conservation in Nepal Frontiers in Forest and Global Change