Flood became more frequent and devastating disaster in recent world. Flood forecasting is an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies. The Koshi River is one of the major tributaries of the Ganges. Before joining the Ganges River, almost every year it floods the downstream areas. As upstream area in Himalayan range, hydro-meteorological data is very scarce in that region. Using remote sensing technology to abstract hydro-meteorological data is possible to acquire and this technology is emerging day by day.
Debris-covered are ubiquitous in the Nepal Himalaya and significantly alter the glaciers response to climate change and have large implications on the development of glacial lakes. The thickness of the debris is largely heterogeneous over the course of the glacier thereby promoting ablation in areas of thin debris and retarding ablation in areas of thick debris.
Glacial-dominated areas pose unique challenges to downstream communities in adapting to recent and continuing global climate change, including increased threats of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have substantial impacts on regional social, environmental and economic systems increasing risk due to flooding of downstream communities. In this dissertation, two lakes with potential to generate GLOFs were studied, Imja Lake in Nepal and Palcacocha Lake in Peru.
With seasonal migration, the problem of political mobilization and organization becomes a tricky issue. Empirically, there is evidence to suggest that the patterns of migration in South and Central Bihar are very different from that of North Bihar. An extensive study needs to be done to bring out the differences between the two regions of Bihar.