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Flooding is one of the most common natural disasters in India. Typically, the Kosi and Gandak river basins are well-known for lingering flood affected basins in North Bihar every year, which lies in the eastern part of India. There were no such comprehensive studies available in North Bihar that discussed flood progression and regression at shorter time-scales like two day intervals.
Several supraglacial ponds are developing and increasing in size and number in the Himalayan region. They are the precursors of large glacial lakes and may become potential for glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Recently, GLOF events originating from supraglacial ponds were recorded; however, the spatial, temporal, and seasonal distributions of these ponds are not well documented. We chose 23 debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region, Nepal, to study the development of supraglacial ponds.
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are among the most serious cryospheric hazards for mountain communities. Multiple studies have predicted the potential risks posed by rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park and Buffer Zone of Nepal. People’s perceptions of such cryospheric hazards can influence their actions, beliefs, and responses to those hazards and associated risks.
Climate change has been adversely affecting glaciers causing them to advance and recession worldwide. Existing studies have primarily attributed temperature as the leading factor causing glacier recession. However, detailed studies that investigate effect of other factors like presence of debris cover, slope, and contact with water bodies are still scarce.
Region-wide averaging of Himalayan glacier mass change has masked any catchment or glacier-scale variability in glacier recession; thus the role of a number of glaciological processes in glacier wastage remains poorly understood. In this study, we quantify mass loss rates over the period 2000, 2013, and 2015 for 32 glaciers across the Everest region and assess how future ice loss is likely to differ depending on glacier hypsometry.
The Himalayas of South Asia are home to many glaciers that are retreating due to climate change and causing the formation of large glacial lakes in their absence. These lakes are held in place by naturally deposited moraine dams that are potentially unstable. Specifically, an impulse wave generated by an avalanche or landslide entering the lake can destabilize the moraine dam, thereby causing a catastrophic failure of the moraine and a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF).