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Several supraglacial ponds are developing and increasing in size and number in the Himalayan region. They are the precursors of large glacial lakes and may become potential for glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Recently, GLOF events originating from supraglacial ponds were recorded; however, the spatial, temporal, and seasonal distributions of these ponds are not well documented. We chose 23 debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region, Nepal, to study the development of supraglacial ponds.
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are among the most serious cryospheric hazards for mountain communities. Multiple studies have predicted the potential risks posed by rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park and Buffer Zone of Nepal. People’s perceptions of such cryospheric hazards can influence their actions, beliefs, and responses to those hazards and associated risks.
For effective development and adaptation interventions in resource-poor regions to take place, it is critical to identify, at the highest spatial scale possible, regions of higher priority based on current needs and vulnerabilities. The index-based assessment of vulnerability to climate change and variability is typically used to identify administrative-level regions of high vulnerability using various socioeconomic and biophysical datasets.
Koshi River basin, which is a trans-boundary basin shared by China, Nepal and India, covers an area of about 71,500 km2. This study investigated the landslide locations in this basin by means of interpreting remote sensing images as well as field work. We could map 5904 landslides that are located within China and Nepal. Landslide caused different kinds of disasters including damage to public and private properties.
Hydrological and sediment transport characteristics for the Kosi basin, which covers parts of Nepal and India, were analysed to understand the spatiotemporal variability of the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Kosi basin and its implications for flood hazard and sediment dynamics. The study revealed that ∼56% of the discharge at Chatara (where all major tributaries of the Kosi meet) is contributed from the western part of the basin even though this constitutes only 34% of the total basin area. In contrast, the central and eastern parts of the basin constitute 57% and 8% of the basin area but contribute ∼38% and ∼16% of the discharge at Chatara, respectively.
The Indo-Gangetic basin exhibits highly diverse hydro-geomorphic settings that influence the hydrology, sediment production, and transport rates of the rivers draining this region, and this, in turn, is manifested in morphometric diversity of river systems.