Past Projects

Landscape Approach and CC

To promot a transboundary landscape approach as a means to climate change adaptation that ensures long-term sustenance of ecosystem services in the Eastern Himalayan region.

Landscape Approach and CC

Promote transboundary landscape conservation as a strategy for adapting to climate change for ensuring sustained ecosystem services in the Eastern Himalaya
TBM Phase III (1 April 2008 – 31 March 2011) particularly looked into promoting a transboundary landscape approach as a means to climate change adaptation that ensures long-term sustenance of ecosystem services in the Eastern Himalayan region.


1. To strengthen the Kangchenjunga Landscape as an integrated conservation-linked livelihood development model to enhance conservation and sustain ecosystem services in the landscape and to initiate scaling-up of the landscape approach in the Brahmaputra Salween Landscape shared by China, India, and Myanmar

  • The Regional Cooperation Framework for Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity was implemented, advocating mainstreaming of the integrated landscape approach for biodiversity management in national conservation and climate change policies.
  • The project provided inputs to the Sacred Himalayan Landscape Interim Implementation Plan.
  • The project promoted training at the national level on conservation-linked livelihood options such as apiary, ecotourism, medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation, and organic farming, as per the corridor management strategic plan developed for the respective corridors in the three member countries.
  • An experimental pilot study on the management effectiveness of existing protected areas in the Kangchenjunga Landscape was initiated. The study indicated that the protected areas in the Kangchenjunga Landscape have a fairly good governance mechanism, although some challenges prevail in terms of capacity, infrastructure, policy enforcement, etc.
  • Baseline studies were facilitated in the countries sharing the Brahmaputra Salween Landscape (China, India, and Myanmar). These studies and the regional synthesis provided better understanding of landscape elements in the BSL permitted analysis of resource status and trends, conservation challenges, and implications of climate change in the landscape.

2. To fill in the knowledge gaps and have a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity resources and services provided by protected areas, corridors, and transboundary landscapes and their implications for vulnerable mountain communities in the Kangchenjunga Landscape

  • Applied research by partners resulted in several important documents:
  • The Technical report on Biodiversity and Climate change perspectives in the Kangchenjunga Landscape addresses biodiversity, ecosystem services, and climate change adaptation.
  • The Framework for Valuing Ecosystem Services in the Himalayas promotes better understanding of economic valuation of ecosystem services, available methodologies, and limitations for quantifying the goods and services in economic terms in the mountain context.
  • The Framework for Adaptation to Climate Change: Conservation Landscape Perspectives highlights the blend of management, policy, and knowledge and capacity building sought to promote ecosystem-based adaptation at the landscape level. It also emphasises the role of conservation corridors as a strategy for climate change adaptation.

3. To enhance capacities of collaborating partners and local communities in understanding the impact of climate change, overcome vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on sustenance of ecosystem services

4. To enhance project performance through regular monitoring and evaluation activities

  • A project impact pathway assessment was conducted, reflecting on the project’s past performance and its outcome in relation to promotion of the landscape approach to biodiversity management.
National Contributing Partners