Electricity, Water, Sanitation and Health

Brief Information

This section provides information about the primary sources of basic household services (fuel/electricity, water, and health services) as well as the accessibility, adequacy, and affordability of these services. 


Out of the households surveyed, 63.7% reported having no family members seriously ill or injured in the last 12 months. Among the districts, households in Humla had the highest frequency of members becoming seriously ill or injured.

A majority of households in Sankhuwashava, Terhthum, Saptari, Gorkha, Kailali, and Sindhupalchok obtain light through electricity drawn from the local and national grid. Other common primary sources of light in the surveyed households were electricity from solar cells/wind turbines/small hydroelectric dams, liquid fuel, candles/paraffin wax/batteries, and wood/saw dust/grass/other natural material. Wood/saw dust/grass/other natural material was the most widely used source of fuel for cooking (95.5%) and heating the house during the winter (98.3%).

The most common sources of drinking water were unprotected sources of spring water, protected sources of spring water, and public taps. The time needed for households to collect water varied depending on the season; most households spent more time collecting water during the dry season. On average, households had sufficient water for drinking 11.5 months of the year, rearing livestock 11.8 months of the year, and fish breeding and catching for 11.5 months of the year. However, the water required for crops was only adequate 6.2 months of the year.

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