Landscape Approach

Landscape-level biodiversity conservation is an evolving concept and an important paradigm shift in the global conservation scenario. It includes the physical and biological features of an area together with the institutions and people who influence the area and the cultural and spiritual values of the area. Policy innovations can best balance the objectives of conservation, productivity, and livelihood improvement through the landscape approach.

The criteria for defining the biodiversity management unit at the landscape level are the following:

  • Identify candidate transboundary priority landscapes that are critical for biodiversity management. Countries sharing the areas should be committed.
  • Apply participatory management of biodiversity in the protected areas of the candidate priority landscapes and their surroundings that will enhance conservation of globally significant, unique biodiversity which is otherwise at risk because of transboundary problems.
  • Restore and increase connectivity by establishing biological corridors between the protected areas within and between landscapes that fall in different countries.
  • Increase conservation attention and efforts on focal species in areas crossing political boundaries.
  • Identify keystone plant species and promote their restoration and conservation in transboundary landscapes. 
  • Address transboundary issues such as grazing, poaching, unsustainable harvesting of NTFPs, control of forest fires, and control of spread of livestock diseases.
  • Promote connectivity within transboundary landscapes so that overall conservation can be achieved by regional and country-to-country cooperation.
  • Adopt policies and incentives conducive to participatory biodiversity management and establish complementarities within the landscapes between the participating countries.