Rasul, G (2020). 'A Framework for Improving Policy Priorities in Managing Covid-19 Challenges in Developing Countries.' In Frontiers in Public Health 8 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.589681.
The interconnected nature of the COVID-19 pandemic demands an integrated approach and coordinated action, which complicates decision making even more. We present a framework for identifying and prioritizing policy actions to address challenges and ensure sustainable recovery. The framework provides insights into developing shared policy goals, identifying smart strategies, assessing policy compatibility, aligning policy instruments, and factoring sustainability into policy decisions. This framework can assist policy makers in linking short and long-term goals, mapping the interactions of different policy options, and assessing anticipated consequences and cross-sectoral implications. This will enable policy makers to prioritize policy choices and efficiently allocate limited resources for greater synergy and co-benefits; multiplier effects; and interconnected solutions for health, the economy, and the environment.
Sharma, BP; Karky, BS; Nepal, M; Pattanayak, SK; Sills, EO; Shyamsundar, P (2020). 'Making Incremental Progress: Impacts of a Redd+ Pilot Initiative in Nepal.' In Environmental Research Letters 15: 105004 DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aba924.
We present a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Nepal. We find little evidence of impacts on forest carbon in just two years. We find that REDD+ reduced forest disturbance as measured by four plot-level indicators (signs of forest fire, soil erosion, encroachment, and wildlife) that are predictive of future changes in net carbon emissions and reflective of reduced extraction pressure by households. While our analysis of household survey data does not show that REDD+ reduced harvest of forest products, we find some evidence that it reduced household dependence on firewood for cooking, possibly by increasing use of biogas. Thus, communities in Nepal appear to have improved conditions in their forests without undermining local benefits of those forests. To secure progress towards reduced emissions and improved livelihoods, interventions must be designed to effectively meet household energy needs.
Sharma, P; Chettri, N; Uddin, K; Wangchuk, K; Joshi, R; Tandin, T; Pandey, A; Gaira, K; Basnet, K; Wangdi, S; Dorji, T; Wangchuk, N; Chitale, VS; Uprety, Y; Sharma, E (2020). 'Mapping Human‒Wildlife Conflict Hotspots in a Transboundary Landscape in the Eastern Himalaya.' In Global Ecology and Conservation: e01284 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01284.
Human‒wildlife conflict (HWC) is a transboundary, multidimensional issue facing the Kangchenjunga Landscape, shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal. We used maximum entropy along with relevant environmental predictor variables to model and map HWC hotspots. We find that about 19% of the landscape's area is at high risk of HWC. Some protected areas are at higher risk than others. The Himalayan subtropical pine forest ecoregion is a high HWC zone (∼63%), followed by the Terai‒Duars savannah and grasslands ecoregion (∼43%). We also find that the low- and mid-elevation zones are prone to conflict because of greater forest fragmentation. Hence, a holistic approach at the landscape level is needed for tackling HWC. Connecting good habitats by restoring fragmented inter- and intra-country habitats would be an effective measure to mitigate HWC.
Thapa, A; Muhammad, S (2020). 'Contemporary Snow Changes in the Karakoram Region Attributed to Improved Modis Data between 2003 and 2018.' In Water 12: 2681.