Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary

The Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary is the most important sanctuary in north Bengal. It is located on the west bank of the Teesta River in the Terai plains of Darjeeling. It includes nine major forest ranges: Kalijhora, Latpanchor, Punding, Sukuna, Gulma, Toribari, Sevoke, Seventh Mile, and Latlong. Vegetation types include grassland, riparian forest, floodplain forest, sal forest, and mixed forest near the river, with drought deciduous hill forest at higher elevations. The Terai belt of the Sanctuary is an important corridor for elephants migrating from Nepal through West Bengal to Assam.

General Information:

Landscape: Kangchenjunga Protected Area Type: Wildlife Sanctuary
Established Year: 1976 Area: 127 sq. km.

Geographical Features:

Country: India
District(s): Darjeeling
Min: 26.76542211264 Max: 26.96912742214
Min: 88.31802491689 Max: 88.48468564082
From: 200 meter To: 1000 meter
Average rainfall (m): N/A
Climate: The temperature during the cold season varies from 1.7 degree C and 8.4 degree C and during the hottest period, it varies between 14.4 degree C and 18.9 degree C. Frost is very common from December till March in areas abouve 2000m, in high ridges, snowfall can be experienced.

Biodiversity Features:

Province: Himalayan Highlands
Biomes: Mixed mountain systems
Vegetation: Forest types include Acacia-Dalbergia riparian forest, Bombax-Albiziz floodplain forest, Shorea robusta forest and mixed forest near the river Teesta, Drought deciduous hill forest at higher elevation.

Socioeconomic Features:

Community Structure: 11 villages belonging to either forest villages, Revenue villages or ecodevelopment community are present in and around the protected area
Natural Heritage:
Cultural Significance:
Livelihood strategies:

Conservation Management:

IUCN Category: IV - Habitat/Species Management Area
Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species.
Management Authority: Wildlife Division I, Government of West Bengal
Park Head Quarter: Darjeeling
Conservation History: It was started as a game sanctuary in 1955 with a view to protecting gaur or Indian bison. In 1959, its status was changed to that of a Wildlife Sancturaty considering its rich and diverse biodiversity .
Conservation Challenges: Illegal fuelwood and timber cutting, Cattle herding, encroachment of the farmlands
Conservation Efforts:
Transboundary Features:
Base Layers
Other Layers
  • Important Bird Areas
  • Protected Area
  • Corridor
  • Ecology
  • Globe Land Cover
  • Landscape
  • HKH Boundary