The Kangchenjunga Landscape encompasses the southern stretch of landscape surrounding Mt Kangchenjunga (8,586m), which spreads over diverse ecological zones in eastern Nepal, Darjeeling and Sikkim in India, and western Bhutan. On the northern side, a small part of the northern slope extends into the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The large southern part of the landscape encompasses an area of about 6,000 sq. km, within a 100 km north-south stretch. The landscape contains tropical to alpine vegetation, which serves as a habitat for many umbrella and charismatic species including the snow leopard, red panda, takin, blue sheep, serow, Himalayan musk deer, Himalayan thar, tiger, and Asian elephant. Most remnant areas with high biological diversity are found in the border areas of the landscape and are facing many conservation issues that are transboundary in nature, demanding an integrated approach for effective conservation through regional cooperation.

Region: Eastern Himalayas
Country: India, Bhutan, Nepal
Latitude: Min:26.74420269828 Max:28.12571440353
Longitude: Min: 87.65398311024 Max: 89.51090988316
Total Area: 14432 sq. km.


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Base Layers
Other Layers
  • Important Bird Areas
  • Protected Area
  • Corridor
  • Ecology
  • Globe Land Cover
  • Landscape
  • HKH Boundary

Protected Areas:

Protected Area NameIUCNCategoryType
Kanchenjunga Conservation AreaIVConservation Area
Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve Biosphere Reserve
Barsey Rhododendron SanctuaryIVRhododendron Sanctuary
Singhalila National ParkIINational Park
Senchal Wildlife SanctuaryIVWildlife Sanctuary
Mahananda Wildlife SanctuaryIVWildlife Sanctuary
Neora Valley National ParkIINational Park
Toorsa Strict Nature ReserveIaStrict Nature Reserve
Fambong Lho Wildlife SanctuaryIVWildlife Sanctuary
Kyongnosla Alpine SanctuaryIVAlpine Sanctuary
Mainam Wildlife SanctuaryIVWildlife Sanctuary
Singhba Rhododendron SanctuaryIVRhododendron Sanctuary
Pangolakha Wildlife SanctuaryIVWildlife Sanctuary
Jore Pokhari Salamander SanctuaryIVSalamander Sanctuary

Corridor Areas:

Corridor NameAdjacent Protected Areas
Nepal side of KBR and BRS adjoining KCAKanchenjunga Conservation Area, Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
Singhalila-SenchalSinghalila National Park, Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary
Senchal-MahanandaSenchal Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary
Mahananda-Neora ValleyMahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, Neora Valley National Park
Neora Valley-ToorsaNeora Valley National Park, Toorsa Strict Nature Reserve
Toorsa-JigmeDorjiToorsa Strict Nature Reserve, Jigme Dorji National Park

Ecosystem Services:

The KL provides people with various goods and services. However, the potential of the biodiversity in the KL in terms of actual economic values has not been critically examined. Given the growing demand of ecosystem services and increased pressure on ecosystems, economic and financial interventions have great prospects for the management of biodiversity in the landscape. Some of the ecosystem services provided by its various ecosystems include: food crops, fodder, fuel, medicinal plants, NTFPs, carbon sequestration, climate regulation, nutrient cycling, soil quality maintenance, irrigation, serves as important habitat for wild animals and plants of global importance, habitat for trans-Himalayan migratory birds; pollination for crop and wild plants, recreation, aesthetic value etc.


ICIMOD partners involved in the Kangchenjunga Landscape initiative

The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, with support from the MacArthur Foundation, has been implementing the landscape approach to biodiversity conservation through the development of conservation corridors among protected areas in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. Considerable progress has been made in promoting biodiversity conservation through an integrated approach linking conservation with socio-cultural and economic elements. Synergies have also been built between local, national, and regional stakeholders working in biodiversity conservation. The initiative has improved understanding among the partners in the Kangchenjunga Landscape initiative about the significance of conservation at the landscape level and has created considerable interest among scientists, policy makers, and general public.

ICIMOD’s partners in the Kangchenjunga Landscape initiative are:

In Bhutan

  • Nature Conservation Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan
  • WWF-Bhutan

In India

  • Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India
  • GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
  • Department of Forest, Government of West Bengal
  • Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council
  • North Bengal University
  • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
  • Darjeeling Earth Group
  • Darjeeling Ladenla Road Prerna
  • Ecotourism and Conservation Society of Sikkim
  • Centre for Studies in Rural Economy Appropriate Technology and Environment
  • Federation of Societies for Environment Protection
  • North East Society for Protection of Nature
  • Wildlife Institute of India
  • WWF-India (Darjeeling Project SERVE)

In Nepal

  • Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal
  • WWF-Nepal
  • The Mountain Institute
  • Namshaling Conservation and Development Committee, Ilam
  • Ilam Sahayog Parisad, Ilam
  • Non-Government Organisation Federation of Nepal, Panchthar
  • Environmental Conservation & Development Forum, Taplejung

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