About ICIMOD

Nepal

Focal Ministry/Institution

National Planning Commission
Government of Nepal
Singha Durbar
GPO Box 1284
Kathmandu, Nepal.
Dr Govinda Raj Pokharel 
Vice-Chairman
Tel: 977-1-4211851
Email: gnepal@npc.gov.np

Official name

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Other names in use

Nepal

Area1

Total : 147,181 sq. km
HKH part : 147,181 sq.km (100%)

Population (mid 2007)2

Total : 27.80 million
HKH part : 27.80 million (100%)

Capital city

Kathmandu

Major cities

Biratnagar, Birgunj, Butwal, Damak, Hetauda, Kakadvitta, Narayanghat, Nepalgunj, Pokhara, Tulshipur

Nationality

Nepali

Currency

Nepalese Rupee

Official languages

Nepali

National day

26th March

Major holidays

Dashain, Tihar, Eid, Lhoshar

International dialing code

977

Sources: 1 Banskota, M., Sharma, P., 1994, Development of Poor Mountain Areas, ICIMOD;2 Population Reference Bureau, 2007 World Population Data Sheet

Owl Image

Sagarmatha (Everest) (8,848 m., rock height 8,844 m.)

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Kanchanjunga (8,586 m)

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Lhotse (8,516 m)

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Makalu (8,462 m)

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Cho Oyu (8,201 m)

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Dhawalagiri (8,167 m)

Agreement/Convention

Status

Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer (ViennaConvention) - 1988

Accession

Convention on Biological Diversity

Signed
Ratified

The Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety

Signed

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of WildFauna and Flora (CITES)

Accession
Entry into force

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Entry into force

Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements ofHazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) - 1992

Accession

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention)

Entry into force

Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa - 1994

Signed
Ratified
Entry into force


International Plant Protection Convention - 1952

Adherence

Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and the Pacific Region - 1956

Adherence

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Signed
Ratified

Male Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and its Likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia

Endorsed

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Signed
Ratified
Entry into force


Kyoto Protocol

Signed
Entry into force

GDP per Capita (PPP)

Source: Nepal in figures 2007, Central Bureau of Statistics, NPC Secretariat, Government of Nepal
US $ 383 (2006)

Major agricultural products

Paddy, maize, sugarcane, wheat, barley, millet, potato, tobacco, oil seed

Major industries

Agricultural & forestry, manufacturing, mining & quarrying, electrical, vegetable oil, garments, cigarette, wollen carpets, beer

Altitude range

Lowest point: 70 m (Kanchan Kalan) Highest point: 8,848 m (Sagarmatha)

Major agro-climate zones

High Himal, Mid Hills and Terai

Nepal’s weather is generally predictable and pleasant. There are four main climatic seasons:(a) Spring : March-May(b) Summer : June-August(c) Autumn : September-November(d) Winter : December-February.The monsoon is approximately from the end of June to the middle of September. About 80 percent of the rain falls during the monsoon and the remainder of the year is relatively dry. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons; winter temperature drop to freezing and below with a high level of snowfall in the mountains. Summer and late spring temperatures range from 28ºC in the hill regions to more than 40ºC in the Terai. In winter, average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Terai range from a 7ºC to a mild 23ºC. The central valleys experience a minimum temperature often falling bellow freezing point and a chilly 12ºC maximum. Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The Kathmandu Valley, at an altitude of 1300m (4297ft), has a mild climate, ranging from 19-27ºC in summer, to 2-20ºC in winter.

Severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoon


Deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal waste, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluent); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions


Major ethnic groups

Chhetri, Brahmin, Magar, Tharu, Tamang, Newar, Muslim, Kami, Yadav, Rai, Gurung, Damai, Limbu, ThakuriPerched on the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains, the Kingdom of Nepal is ethnically diverse. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations. These migrations have taken place from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahman and Chhetri caste groups came from India, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to Central Asia and Tibet, including the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai and Limbu in the east, and Sherpa and Bhotia in the north.In the Terai, which is a part of the Ganges basin, much of the population is physically and culturally similar to the Indo-Aryan people of northern India. People of Indo-Aryan and Mongoloid stock live in the hill region. The mountainous highlands are sparsely populated. Kathmandu Valley, in the mid hill region, constitutes a small fraction of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with almost 5% of the population. Nepal's 2001 census enumerated 103 distinct caste/ethnic groups including unidentified. The caste system of Nepal is rooted in the Hindu religion while the ethnic system is rooted in mutually exclusive origin myths, historical mutual seclusion and the occasional state intervention.

Major religions

Hindu, Buddhist, Islam, Kirat, Christian

Major languages

Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang, Nepal Bhasa, Magar, Awadhi, Sherpa, Kiranti, Bantawa, Gurung, Limbu, Bajjika, and other 100 different indigenous languages.

Major festivals

Dashain, Tihar, Lhoshar, Eid